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Vacuum pump for the chemical industry
Vacuum is an indispensable utility in chemical companies like water, electricity and compressed air. Vacuum pumps used in the chemical industry must be robust and reliable to handle large volumes of steam, corrosive gases and flammable gases. This paper describes the structure and performance of various vacuum pumps. Liquid ring pumps and screw vacuum pumps are best suited for chemical processes.

        In many chemical companies, vacuum is an indispensable public facility like water, electricity and compressed air. Vacuum is usually used to remove air or water vapor to prevent interference with the process, and vacuum can enhance the efficiency of the reaction process and the recovery of important compounds. In the vacuum state, the boiling point of the liquid is lowered, which is very advantageous for the treatment of the heat sensitive material. Under vacuum conditions, the solid end product produced from the liquid state is more uniform, and the geometry has no voids due to the bubbles. In addition, it is safer to use aggressive compounds that are handled and transferred under vacuum.
1. The role of vacuum in chemical processes
● Remove oxygen and water vapor from the air. If these ingredients are combined with the process components, they will change the chemical reaction.
●Removal of excess reactants or unwanted by-products, taking into account efficiency and yield
● reduce the boiling point of the mixture during the distillation process
● Dry the material by removing the solvent
● Use the pressure difference to transport material from this end to the other end
2. Various methods of obtaining vacuum
        The vacuum is generated by a vacuum pump. There are many types of vacuum pumps. In order to obtain low pressure and large pumping speed, it can be composed of a multi-stage vacuum pump in series to form a system. But all vacuum systems contain a primary pump or vacuum pump called the atmosphere. According to the method of pumping, the primary vacuum obtaining equipment is classified as follows:
● Mechanically intercepting the gas and conveying the inhaled gas from the suction port to the exhaust port. The variable capacity vacuum pump is an example.
● Passing a jet to transfer momentum and taking the pumped gas away, the steam jet pump and the atmospheric jet are using this principle of operation
• On the unfolded surface, the gas is absorbed by a porous medium at a low temperature. Adsorption pump is the principle
        The first two types of vacuum pumps are widely used in the chemical industry, but water vapor jet pumps are rarely used due to energy consumption and environmental pollution. The adsorption pump stores the pumped gas in the pump and cannot be directly discharged to the atmosphere, so it is not suitable for industrial applications. As the application of vacuum in the chemical industry continues to increase, it is more appropriate to use a composite vacuum system, that is, a vacuum unit in which a multi-stage vacuum pump is connected in series.
3. Chemical process requirements for vacuum pumps
        Due to the harsh working conditions of the chemical process, the working cycle is very long. Therefore, the vacuum pump must first be reliable and durable, and the performance is stable. It must also have the following properties:
● Ability to handle steam from a variety of different solvents without causing damage to the pump
●No pollution to the process and environment
●The waste generated should be reduced as much as possible
●The vacuum pump should be corrosion resistant
● Ability to handle flammable gases or steam
● Ability to suck in liquid without damaging the pump
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